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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

1. What is Californium-252?

  • Californium-252 is the only isotope which spontaneously emits neutrons.
  • Californium-252 (Cf-252) was first identified in 1950 at the University of California, Berkeley and was the sixth transuranium element to be discovered.
  • Half Life = 2.65 years
  • Primary Energy = 2 MeV

2. How is the activity of Californium-252 measured?

  • Californium-252 is a radioactive metal and is measured in weight amounts of micrograms and milligrams.
  • All other isotopes are measured in the form of Curies.

3. Explain model 10 and model 10S capsules?

  • Both are single encapsulated sources
  • Both are certified as Special Form by IAEA.
  • Both are inner capsules for double encapsulated sources. (Model 100)
  • Model 10 = 5.5mm x 24.8mm
  • Model 10S = 5.5mm x 11.9mm

4. How are sources sealed?

  • Welded with Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) to meet special form requirements. 

5. What is NIST traceable and are Frontier sources NIST traceable?

  • NIST stands for the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce. NIST measurements are the standard that all industrial measurements are held to.
  • ALL Frontier sources are NIST traceable and certification can be provided upon request.

6. What are Yellow III, Yellow II, and White I classifications?

RADIOACTIVE CATEGORY LABELS
 Close Maximum Surface mRem/hr Transport Index
White I 0.5 0
Yellow II 50 1.0
Yellow III 200 10

7. Proper label for shipping containers containing Cf-252

  • RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
  • TYPE A PACKAGE
  • SPECIAL FORM, NON-FISSILE
  • CLASS 7 UN3332

8. Proper labeling for EMPTY shipping containers previously containing radioactive material

  • RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
  • EXCEPTED PACKAGE, EMPTY PACKAGING
  • CLASS 7 UN2908

9. Does Frontier provide certified neutron emission statements?

  • Yes, upon request.

10. Conversion measurements for 1 microgram (µg) of Cf-252

  • 1µg = 2.31 x 106 neutrons/second (n/s)
  • 1µg = 0.5mCi
  • 1 µg = 0.02 GBq

11. What countries can Frontier ship Cf-252 sources to?

  • Every country in the world with the exception of those on the Embargo List.
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