What is Californium-252?

  • Californium-252 is the only isotope which spontaneously emits neutrons.
  • Californium-252 (Cf-252) was first identified in 1950 at the University of California in Berkeley, and was the sixth transuranium element to be discovered.
  • Cf-252’s half-life is 2.65 years.
  • Cf-252’s primary energy is 2 MeV.

How is the activity of Californium-252 measured?

  • Californium-252 is a radioactive metal that is measured in weight amounts of micrograms and milligrams.
  • All other isotopes are measured in the form of Curies.

Explain model 10 and model 10S capsules?

  • Both are single-encapsulated sources
  • Both are certified as Special Form by IAEA.
  • Both are inner capsules for double-encapsulated sources. (Model 100)
  • Model 10 = 5.5mm x 24.8mm
  • Model 10S = 5.5mm x 11.9mm

How are sources sealed?

  • Welded with Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) to meet Special Form requirements.

What is NIST-traceable, and are Frontier sources NIST-traceable?

  • NIST stands for the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and is an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce. NIST measurements are the standard that all industrial measurements are held to.
  • ALL Frontier sources are NIST-traceable, and certification can be provided upon request.

What are Yellow III, Yellow II, and White I classifications?

Radioactive Category Labels Maximum Surface mRem/hr Transport Index
White I 0.5 0
Yellow II 50 1.0
Yellow III 200 10

Proper label for shipping containers containing Cf-252

  • RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
    TYPE-A PACKAGE
    SPECIAL FORM, NON-FISSILE
    CLASS 7 UN3332

Proper labeling for EMPTY shipping containers previously containing radioactive material

  • RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
    EXCEPTED PACKAGE, EMPTY PACKAGING
    CLASS 7 UN2908

Does Frontier provide certified neutron emission statements?

  • Yes, upon request.

Conversion measurements for 1 microgram (µg) of Cf-252:

  • 1µg = 2.31 x 106 neutrons/second (n/s)
  • 1µg = 0.5mCi
  • 1 µg = 0.02 GBq

What countries can Frontier ship Cf-252 sources to?

  • Every country in the world with the exception of those on the Embargo List.